Learning Objectives
The Students Will:

Understand classical conditioning and give examples of the process.
Understand operant conditioning and describe applications.
Explain the distinctions between positive and negative reinforcement and punishment.
Describe the importance of reinforcement schedules and the characteristics of the schedules.
Communicate the significance of shaping to the process of operant conditioning.

 

Learning and Behaviorism

 

behaviorism
    the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not (2)

learning
    a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
associative learning
    learning that certain events occur together. the events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
cognitive map
    a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
intrinsic motivation
    a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
extrinsic motivation
    a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
observational learning
    learning by observing others; also called social learning
modeling
    the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
habituation
    an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it

 

 

 

Classical Conditioning

 

classical conditioning
    a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events


unconditioned response
    in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth
unconditioned stimulus
    in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response
conditioned response
    in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
conditioned stimulus
    in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response


acquisition
    in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response; in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
higher-order conditioning
    a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus
extinction
    the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced
spontaneous recovery
    the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
generalization
    the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for a stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
discrimination
    in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus

The Office Classical Conditioning from SF Online on Vimeo.

 

 

 

 

operant conditioning


operant conditioning
    a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
operant behavior
    behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
law of effect
    Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behavior followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

shaping
    an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcer guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

 

Reinforcements and Punishments

 

reinforcer
    in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

positive reinforcement
    increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food; any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
negative reinforcement
    increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock; any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response (NOT punishment)

punishment
    an event that decreases the behavior that it follows

positive punishment
    decreasing behaviors by presenting negative stimuli, such as shock; any stimulus that, when presented after a response, decreases the response
negative punishment
    decreasing behaviors by stopping or reducing positive stimuli; any stimulus that, when removed after a response, decreases the response

primary reinforcer
    an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
secondary (or conditioned) reinforcer
    a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer

 

 

 

Schedules

 

continuous reinforcement
    reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs (1:1)
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
    reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement (pretty much everything but 1:1)

fixed-ratio schedule
    in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable-ratio schedule
    in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
fixed-interval schedule
    in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule
    in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals