Learning Objectives Understand the historical context and evolution of psychology as a modern science.
The Students Will:
Explain the differences between the seven major psychology disciplines.
Name important historical figures who contributed to psychology and describe their contributions.
The Seven Approaches of Psychology
Focus on how the physical body and brain creates our emotions, memories and sensory experiences.
We behave the way we do because we inherited those behaviors through natural seletion to ensure our survival.
Fathered by Sigmund Freud, our behavior comes from unconscious drives--usually stemming from our childhood.
The study of observable behavior and how rewards and punishments help you learn.
The study how thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating influences behavior
Focuses on positive growth and an attempt to seek self-actualization.
Other people, social, and culteral influence affects individual's behavior and thinking.
Ancient Eastern Philosophers
Founder of Taoism
Author of the Tao Te Ching
Taught the Golden Rule.
His sayings were compiled in the Analects
Author of The Art of War.
A Chinese military general.
The central figure of Buddhism.
Foundation of The Nine Virtues.
Ancient Western Philosophers
Established the fundamentals of modern Western philosophy
Executed by the state for corrupting the youth.
Founded the Academy in Athens
Father of Western political philosophy
Established "natural philosophy."
Believed concepts and knowledge was ultimately based on perception.
Thought individuals are responsible for their own actions
Believed external events are beyond the individual’s control.
The human mind creates the structure of human experience.
Reason is the source of morality.
At birth, the mind is a blank slate or “tabula rasa.”
Father of Liberalism
Early crusader for civil rights.
Exiled from France because of his writings.
“I think, therefore I am.”
Father of modern philosophy.
Dualism the body and mind are separate entities.
The principal architect of modern social science.
Conducted the first scientifically methodological study of social fact.
Conflict between the ruling class and working class.
Father of socialism.
Spoke of “The Iron Cage.”
Social class creates a hierarchy of people in society.
First Female Sociologist
One of the first women journalists.
Father of Functionalism.
Wrote The Principles of Psychology.
The first psychologist.
Founded the first formal laboratory for psychological research.
Edward B. Titchener
Father of structuralism.
Studied how mental phenomena correlates with physical events.
G. Stanley Hall
The first president of the American Psychological Association.
Awarded the first PhD on a psychological topic.
Margaret Floy Washburn
First woman to be granted a PhD in psychology.
Experimental work in animal behavior and motor theory development.
Mary Whiton Calkins
First woman to complete the coursework for a Ph.D in psychology.
First woman to become president of the American Psychological Association
Inez Beverly Prosser
First African-American female to receive a Ph.D in psychology.
Focused on cross-racial educational psychology.
Wrote a daily newspaper advice column.
Invented media psychology through hosting radio and television programs.
Father of psychoanalysis
Therapy consisted of free association.
Coined the phrase “collective unconscious.”
Discussed the concept of archetypes.
Founder of individual psychology.
Emphasized an individual’s personal interest in furthering the welfare of others.
Founded “feminist psychology.”
Questioned traditional Freudian views.
Childhood is crucial to the formation of adult personality.
coined the phrase identity crisis.
Theory of cognitive development.
Emphasized the importance on the education of children.
stages of moral development
The process of moral development is principally concerned with justice.
The Law of effect.
First psychologist to use nonhuman subjects.
Studied abstract intelligence, mechanical intelligence, and social intelligence.
Famous for working with dogs and bells.
Developed radical behaviorism.
Conducted the "Little Albert" experiment.
published "The Behaviorist Manifesto."
Unconditional Positive Regard
Hierarchy of Needs.
Theory includes both the positive and negative aspects of human dispositions.
Studied the underlying mechanisms behind human suffering and crises.
Developed and popularized existential psychology.
Pioneer of “family therapy.”
The "surface problem" is seldom the “real problem.”
Conducted social conformity experiments.
Social pressure to choose the wrong line.
The Bobo doll experiment.
Developed social learning and the social cognitive theory.
Obedience to authority.
Subjects would “shock” strangers.
Stanford prison study.
The power of rolls and situations.
Developed general intelligence as the g factor
A pioneer of factor analysis.
Theory of multiple intelligences.
Numbers are not an accurate depiction of people's abilities.
First practical IQ test.
“Subjective” and “objective” intellectual functioning
Louis L. Thurstone
Primary Mental Abilities.
The law of comparative judgment.
Father of cognitive psychology.
Argued memory is, largely, reconstructed and not a snapshot of the moment.
A linguist who studied language acquisition.
Universal grammar theory.
Inspiration of evolutionary psychology.
Influenced comparative psychology.
A pioneer in the field of gender difference psychology.
Studied ethical community and ethical relationships.
Sir Francis Galton
Invented the phrase “nature vs nurture.”
Coined the term "eugenics."
William Moulton Marston
Early work influenced the lie detector test.
Created the character Wonder Woman.
Worked in drive theory.
Created a scientific formula to predict behavior.
Created the inkblot test.
Gained insight through subjects interpreting ambiguous stimuli.
THE OBJECT OF THE GAME
The goal is to win the most "complete schools." A complete school is four psychologists, or philosophers, from the same discipline such as the four “Eastern Philosophers” or “Developmental Psychologists.”
After the deck is shuffled, a lead psychologist (dealer) is designated. The LP ensures that the deck is randomized (shuffled) and the player to the right of the LP cuts the cards. The LP then distributes (deals) the cards clockwise one at a time, face down, beginning with the player to her left until each player has five cards. The remainder of the pack is placed face down on the table to form the pool.
If any player at this point has a complete field, they may immediately lay the four cards down and draw back up to three cards. If at any point a player has less than three cards, they may immediately draw back up to three.
Play begins with the player to the left of the LP who becomes the “researcher.” The researcher may ask one other player, who becomes the “subject,” if they have a card in a particular field. The researcher must have in hand at least one figure from that field. If the subject has one or more cards in that field, they must hand over all the relevant cards. The subject reads the text of each card as they are handed over to the researcher.
If the researcher gets one or more cards of in the field she asked for, she may continue the research process and ask the same or another player for a card. She can ask for the same card or a different one.
So long as the researcher succeeds in getting cards, her turn continues. If at any time a player gets a complete field, she shows all four cards, places them on the table face up in front of her, and plays again. Remember, if at any time a player has fewer than four cards, they may draw back up to four.
If the subject has none, he says “keep researching” and the researcher takes the top card of the pool and places it in hand. If the card drawn from the pool is of the same school that what previously asked, they reveal the card and say “correlation is not causation” and the researcher may continue her turn. If the card is of a different school than previously asked, the researcher’s turn is over and the player to the left is now the researcher.
There are two “Sigmund Freud” cards in the deck. Either Freud card can be used to complete a set of “Psychoanalytic” or “Developmental” school set; however, Freud cannot appear twice in a single school.
There are eight “Sundry Psychologists.” They can only be set down in sets of four. If at the end of the game one player has all eight, they are scored as three complete sets. Additionally, if a player can lay down all eight in one play she will receive double points and it will count as four when totaling points.
ENDING THE GAME
The game ends when all schools have been matched and are face up in front of the players. The player with with most complete school sets is the winner. If two or more have the same number, it is a tie. If a player has no cards and there are no cards left in the pool, he is out for the remainder of the game.
First Extension: When the researcher asks for a school, if the subject has a card in that school, the subject says the name of one of the psychologists (ie: “I have Sigmund Freud”). The researcher must correctly identify one or more or the contributions of that psychologist, printed on the card, in order for the subject to hand over the card (ie: “Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis”). If the researcher is successful in naming the card, the subject has additional figures from the named field, he then names another psychologist (ie: “I also have Carl Jung”). Alternately, the subject may declare one of the attributes and the researcher must identify the psychologist in order to win the card. This continues until the subject has no more figures from that school. The researcher then resumes her turn. With the extended rule set in play, the subject does not identify the card text when it is handed over.
If at any point the researcher cannot identify the psychologist in question, her turn is over and she may not draw a card.
Second Extension (continuing from the First Extension): If the researcher cannot identify the psychologist,however, the subject may ask the researcher for a psychologist from the field that was just asked. The researcher then reveals the name of the psychologist and if the subject correctly identifies the card text, he wins the card from the researcher. If he cannot, the turn is over and neither player draws a card.
Third Extension: Instead of identifying one point from the card text, to points must be identified in order to win the card.
Copyright 2017 Patrick Murphy