Learning Objectives
The Students Will:

Understand the historical context and evolution of psychology as a modern science.
Explain the differences between the seven major psychology disciplines.
Name important historical figures who contributed to psychology and describe their contributions.

3rd Period Figures You Should Know Link

4th Period Figures You Should Know Link

The Seven Approaches of Psychology

Biological Psychology
  Focus on how the physical body and brain creates our emotions, memories and sensory experiences.
Evolutionary Psychology
  We behave the way we do because we inherited those behaviors through natural seletion to ensure our survival.
Psychodynamic Psychology
  Fathered by Sigmund Freud, our behavior comes from unconscious drives--usually stemming from our childhood.
Behavioral Psychology
  The study of observable behavior and how rewards and punishments help you learn.
Cognitive Psychology
  The study how thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating influences behavior
Humanistic Psychology
  Focuses on positive growth and an attempt to seek self-actualization.
Social-Cultural Psychology
  Other people, social, and culteral influence affects individual's behavior and thinking.


Ancient Eastern Philosophers

   Founder of Taoism
   Author of the Tao Te Ching
   Taught the Golden Rule.
   His sayings were compiled in the Analects
Sun Tzu
   Author of The Art of War.
   A Chinese military general.
Siddhārtha Gautama
   The central figure of Buddhism.
   Foundation of The Nine Virtues.


Ancient Western Philosophers

   Established the fundamentals of modern Western philosophy
   Executed by the state for corrupting the youth.
   Founded the Academy in Athens
   Father of Western political philosophy
   Established "natural philosophy."
   Believed concepts and knowledge was ultimately based on perception.
   Thought individuals are responsible for their own actions
   Believed external events are beyond the individual’s control.


Modern Philosophers

Immanuel Kant

   The human mind creates the structure of human experience.
   Reason is the source of morality.
John Locke
   At birth, the mind is a blank slate or “tabula rasa.”
   Father of Liberalism
   Early crusader for civil rights.
   Exiled from France because of his writings.
René Descartes
   “I think, therefore I am.”
   Father of modern philosophy.
   Dualism the body and mind are separate entities.


Early Sociologists

Émile Durkheim
   The principal architect of modern social science.
   Conducted the first scientifically methodological study of social fact.
Karl Marx
   Conflict between the ruling class and working class.
   Father of socialism.
Max Weber
   Spoke of “The Iron Cage.”
   Social class creates a hierarchy of people in society.
Harriet Martineau
   First Female Sociologist
   One of the first women journalists.


Early Psychologists


William James
   Father of Functionalism.
   Wrote The Principles of Psychology.
Wilhelm Wundt
   The first psychologist.
   Founded the first formal laboratory for psychological research.
Edward B. Titchener
   Father of structuralism.
   Studied how mental phenomena correlates with physical events.
G. Stanley Hall
   The first president of the American Psychological Association.
   Awarded the first PhD on a psychological topic.


Famous Females


Margaret Floy Washburn
   First woman to be granted a PhD in psychology.
   Experimental work in animal behavior and motor theory development.
Mary Whiton Calkins
   First woman to complete the coursework for a Ph.D in psychology.
   First woman to become president of the American Psychological Association
Inez Beverly Prosser
   First African-American female to receive a Ph.D in psychology.
   Focused on cross-racial educational psychology.
Joyce Brothers
   Wrote a daily newspaper advice column.
   Invented media psychology through hosting radio and television programs.




Sigmund Freud
   Father of psychoanalysis
   Therapy consisted of free association.
Carl Jung
   Coined the phrase “collective unconscious.”
   Discussed the concept of archetypes.
Alfred Adler
   Founder of individual psychology.
   Emphasized an individual’s personal interest in furthering the welfare of others.
Karen Horney
   Founded “feminist psychology.”
   Questioned traditional Freudian views.



Sigmund Freud
   Psychosexual development.
   Childhood is crucial to the formation of adult personality.
Erick Erickson
   Psychosocial development.
   coined the phrase identity crisis.
Jean Piaget
   Theory of cognitive development.
   Emphasized the importance on the education of children.
Lawrence Kohlberg
   stages of moral development
   The process of moral development is principally concerned with justice.



Edward Thorndike
   The Law of effect.
   First psychologist to use nonhuman subjects.
   Studied abstract intelligence, mechanical intelligence, and social intelligence.
Ivan Pavlov
   Classical conditioning
   Famous for working with dogs and bells.
B.F. Skinner
   Operant conditioning
   Developed radical behaviorism.
John Watson
   Conducted the "Little Albert" experiment.
   published "The Behaviorist Manifesto."



Carl Rogers
   Person-Centered Therapy
   Unconditional Positive Regard
Abraham Maslow
   Hierarchy of Needs.
   Theory includes both the positive and negative aspects of human dispositions.
Rollo May
   Studied the underlying mechanisms behind human suffering and crises.
   Developed and popularized existential psychology.
Virginia Satir
   Pioneer of “family therapy.”
   The "surface problem" is seldom the “real problem.”

Social Psychology


Solomon Asch
   Conducted social conformity experiments.
   Social pressure to choose the wrong line.
Albert Bandura
   The Bobo doll experiment.
   Developed social learning and the social cognitive theory.
Stanley Milgram
   Obedience to authority.
   Subjects would “shock” strangers.
Philip Zimbardo
   Stanford prison study.
   The power of rolls and situations.



Charles Spearman
   Developed general intelligence as the g factor
   A pioneer of factor analysis.
Howard Gardner
   Theory of multiple intelligences.
   Numbers are not an accurate depiction of people's abilities.
Alfred Binet
   First practical IQ test.
   “Subjective” and “objective” intellectual functioning
Louis L. Thurstone
   Primary Mental Abilities.
   The law of comparative judgment.


Sundry Psychologists


Ulric Neisser
   Father of cognitive psychology.
   Argued memory is, largely, reconstructed and not a snapshot of the moment.
Noam Chomsky
   A linguist who studied language acquisition.
   Universal grammar theory.
Charles Darwin
   Inspiration of evolutionary psychology.
   Influenced comparative psychology.
Carol Gilligan
   A pioneer in the field of gender difference psychology.
   Studied ethical community and ethical relationships.
Sir Francis Galton
   Invented the phrase “nature vs nurture.”
   Coined the term "eugenics."
William Moulton Marston
   Early work influenced the lie detector test.
   Created the character Wonder Woman.
Clark Hull
   Worked in drive theory.
   Created a scientific formula to predict behavior.
Hermann Rorschach
   Created the inkblot test.
   Gained insight through subjects interpreting ambiguous stimuli.





The goal is to win the most "complete schools." A complete school is four psychologists, or philosophers, from the same discipline such as the four “Eastern Philosophers” or “Developmental Psychologists.”


After the deck is shuffled, a lead psychologist (dealer) is designated. The LP ensures that the deck is randomized (shuffled) and the player to the right of the LP cuts the cards. The LP then distributes (deals) the cards clockwise one at a time, face down, beginning with the player to her left until each player has five cards. The remainder of the pack is placed face down on the table to form the pool.

If any player at this point has a complete field, they may immediately lay the four cards down and draw back up to three cards. If at any point a player has less than three cards, they may immediately draw back up to three.


Play begins with the player to the left of the LP who becomes the “researcher.” The researcher may ask one other player, who becomes the “subject,” if they have a card in a particular field. The researcher must have in hand at least one figure from that field. If the subject has one or more cards in that field, they must hand over all the relevant cards. The subject reads the text of each card as they are handed over to the researcher.

If the researcher gets one or more cards of in the field she asked for, she may continue the research process and ask the same or another player for a card. She can ask for the same card or a different one.

So long as the researcher succeeds in getting cards, her turn continues. If at any time a player gets a complete field, she shows all four cards, places them on the table face up in front of her, and plays again. Remember, if at any time a player has fewer than four cards, they may draw back up to four.

If the subject has none, he says “keep researching” and the researcher takes the top card of the pool and places it in hand. If the card drawn from the pool is of the same school that what previously asked, they reveal the card and say “correlation is not causation” and the researcher may continue her turn. If the card is of a different school than previously asked, the researcher’s turn is over and the player to the left is now the researcher.
There are two “Sigmund Freud” cards in the deck. Either Freud card can be used to complete a set of “Psychoanalytic” or “Developmental” school set; however, Freud cannot appear twice in a single school.

There are eight “Sundry Psychologists.” They can only be set down in sets of four. If at the end of the game one player has all eight, they are scored as three complete sets. Additionally, if a player can lay down all eight in one play she will receive double points and it will count as four when totaling points.


The game ends when all schools have been matched and are face up in front of the players. The player with with most complete school sets is the winner. If two or more have the same number, it is a tie. If a player has no cards and there are no cards left in the pool, he is out for the remainder of the game.



First Extension: When the researcher asks for a school, if the subject has a card in that school, the subject says the name of one of the psychologists (ie: “I have Sigmund Freud”). The researcher must correctly identify one or more or the contributions of that psychologist, printed on the card, in order for the subject to hand over the card (ie: “Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis”). If the researcher is successful in naming the card, the subject has additional figures from the named field, he then names another psychologist (ie: “I also have Carl Jung”). Alternately, the subject may declare one of the attributes and the researcher must identify the psychologist in order to win the card. This continues until the subject has no more figures from that school. The researcher then resumes her turn. With the extended rule set in play, the subject does not identify the card text when it is handed over.

If at any point the researcher cannot identify the psychologist in question, her turn is over and she may not draw a card.


Second Extension (continuing from the First Extension): If the researcher cannot identify the psychologist,however, the subject may ask the researcher for a psychologist from the field that was just asked. The researcher then reveals the name of the psychologist and if the subject correctly identifies the card text, he wins the card from the researcher. If he cannot, the turn is over and neither player draws a card.


Third Extension: Instead of identifying one point from the card text, to points must be identified in order to win the card.

Copyright 2017 Patrick Murphy